Medical application of silicone rubber and its future development (1)
Nearly 20 years, the global silicon rubber products to more than 15% annual rate of rapid development, the current global silicone rubber market has reached 6 billion US dollars, as a medical material after several decades of clinical application of silicone rubber, has been recognized by the medical profession , More and more widely used, many large companies to medical silicone rubber as the main goal of development, medical silicone rubber made significant progress.
In addition to meet the basic requirements of medical polymer materials, silicone rubber also has the characteristics of heat-resistant, cold-resistant, non-toxic, bio-aging, minimal reaction to human tissues and good physical and mechanical properties, Molecular materials, widely used in medical and health, biomedical engineering, in the current large number of medical polymer materials, silicone rubber in terms of both the number and variety are dominant.
Medical catheters are the fastest growing and most versatile products in medical silicone rubber products. By purpose can be divided into in vivo and in vitro, mainly in vitro various types of pump tubes, such as artificial heart-lung pump tube, and various instruments connecting tubes, infusion tubes; for the body is all kinds of intubation, catheters, drainage tube. At present, the development trend of medical catheters for the human body is miniaturization, thinning, multi-cavitation and multi-function of one tube. Especially for catheter indwelling body, whether it is long-term or short-term use, silicone rubber material, the advantages of the catheter is unmatched by other materials.
◆ brain surgery products
Silicone rubber products for craniocerebral surgery are mainly: artificial skull, titanium-titanium composite repair materials, hydrocephalus six devices, ventricular drainage tube, artificial meninges, the current domestic research and production of silicone rubber and nylon fabric made of artificial meninges , Can be used to repair traumatic dura defect, repair due to the tumor in the dura mater cutty or infiltration of dura caused by dura or dura defect and so on.
◆ ENT products
ENT silicone products include: artificial nose, artificial jaw, mandible, artificial ear, artificial throat, otitis media ventilation device, lacrimal passage probing device, lacrimal plug, nostril stent, snorer, nasal bleeding balloon, Artificial respirators wave tube, tracheostomy tube. At present, silicone rubber has been widely used in plastic surgery and repair, all parts of the face and visceral, chest, joints, etc. can be repaired.
◆ cardiac surgery products
Silicone rubber products used in cardiac surgery are the main extracorporeal circulation pump tube, chest drainage tube, artificial lung silicone film, artificial heart ball mitral valve.
◆ digestive system products
Silicone rubber tube, duodenal tube, double-lumen casing, nutrition tube, gastric decompression tube, gastric fistula, gastric lavage tube, appliance, etc., before these products mainly used polyvinyl chloride material, with the silicone rubber Lower production costs, and silicone rubber products, softness and flexibility is more ideal, so at home in the country has begun to replace a large number of PVC products.
◆ abdominal surgery and reproductive system products
Silicone rubber products for abdominal surgery are: peritoneal dialysis tube, abdominal drainage tube, T-tube, Y-tube, TY tube, capillary drainage tube, porous drainage tube, negative pressure drainage device, In the reproductive system is a wide range of applications, including a variety of catheters, fistulas, penile prostheses, artificial testis, fetal suction device, uterine heat ball treatment device, silicone rubber IUD, subcutaneous implants and other devices.
◆ drug delivery system
Prolonging the continuity of drug efficacy and enhancing the specificity and safety of drug action is an important issue in pharmaceutical research. Silicone rubber is an ideal drug sustained-release material because of its good penetration and permeability. Silicone rubber in the drug delivery system as a carrier application products are: 1) Silicone rubber can be made into capsules through the capsule wall can be drugs such as various steroids, prostaglandins, antibiotics, sedatives, sleeping pills, anti-cancer drugs , Narcotic agents slowly spread to the body; 2) Silicone rubber in the long-term contraceptives applications, after years of clinical trials show that subcutaneous implants is an ideal long-acting contraceptives, implants mainly silicon Rubber as the carrier of the steroidal drugs, subcutaneous implant products are: Norplant (six), Jadena (two) developed abroad, the development of long-term subcutaneous implants Sino-Implant (two) Etc., as well as some single-rooted products; 3) Silicone rubber can be used as a matrix-type drug sustained-release preparation for drug release matrix, such as a hormone hormone-promoting preparation for promoting growth; 4) Silicone rubber can be used for skin absorption type preparations, Heart disease prevention drugs nitroglycerin TTS products; 5) silicone rubber in the release of the vaginal ring and intrauterine device applications; 6) for the release of drug-resistant silicone rubber contact lenses; 7) Scaffold coating for sustained release therapy, silicone rubber has good elasticity, tear resistance and biocompatibility, can be used as a medical stent coating film.
◆ other applications
Medical silicone rubber in addition to the above aspects of application, but also as a skin expander, artificial breast, artificial joints, artificial skin, baby pacifiers and so on. Silicone rubber is also widely used in biomedical engineering, and its products include medical electrodes and bio-implanted sensors. For example, currently developed domestic silicone rubber electrode instead of the traditional electronic instruments on the copper, lead plate and ordinary rubber electrodes, the performance is more stable.
Development Direction and Research Progress
Although silicone rubber has occupied a very important position in the medical field, due to its strong hydrophobic and non-biodegradable surface defects, there are still some adverse reactions when contact with human tissues. Therefore, The modification of bio-polymer material silicone rubber and its combination with bio-engineering have become the focus of study and the future development direction.
Medical silicone rubber modified method can be broadly divided into surface modification and bulk modification. Surface modification can be achieved by physical and chemical techniques, while bulk modification uses methods such as blending, copolymerizing, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), and terminal or pendant functionalization.